SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of fungi

Antiinflammatory and Immunomodulating Properties of Fungal Metabolites

Lull C et al. Antiinflammatory and Immunomodulating Properties of Fungal Metabolites. Mediators Inflamm. 2005 (2), p63-80.

Abstract: The major immunomodulating effects of the active substances derived from mushrooms include mitogenicity and activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells, resulting in the production of cytokines, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α, and interferon gamma (INF)-γ. The ability of selective mushroom extracts to modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into TH1 and/or TH2 subsets was discussed. As a consequence these extracts will have profound effects in particular diseases, like chronic autoimmune TH1-mediated or allergic TH2-mediated diseases. The therapeutic effects of mushrooms, such as anticancer activity, suppression of autoimmune diseases, and allergy have been associated with their immunomodulating effects. However, further studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms of the immunomodulating effects of mushrooms metabolites both individually and in complex mixtures and extracts.

2. Immunomodulatory effects of medicinal fungi 

Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms

Alena G. et al. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology. Integr. Med. (Encinitas).2014 13(1), p.32-44.

Abstract: The review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, andTrametes versicolor.The article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment.

3. Effect of medicinal fungi on the prevention of cancer diseases 

Medicinal mushrooms boost immune function and prevent cancer

Schmidt D et al. Medicinal mushroomsboost immune function and prevent cancer. Nat. Cancer Treatments. 2017 Jan

1. Cordyceps sinensis 

General

Cordyceps mushrooms have long been used in China to improve the overall quality of life, to rob the weakened body and to strengthen the nervous system. The side effect is not known and does not damage the intestinal flora. Specially recommended for elderly animals, patients and recovery patients.

 

Strengthening, robotic effects

It has a positive effect on the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), thereby increasing the energy level in the energy producing mitochondria in the cells, thereby improving muscle function, e.g. myocardial function. It is able to strengthen the body against fatigue, improving blood circulation and improving oxygen uptake. 

Health Care Effects 

It positively influences the HDL: LDL type cholesterol ratio, reduces the possibility of the formation of "plaques" on blood vessels, stimulates liver and kidney function, and contributes to the body's natural detoxification processes. 

The so-called body of the body. is also effectively involved in the conclusion of "free radicals". The Cordyceps polysaccharide content, as well as antioxidant enzymes (eg superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) are involved in the mitigation of harmful oxidative effects caused by free radicals, thereby inhibiting aging processes ("anti-aging") and having a positive effect on \ t cardiovascular functions. 

In China it is well known that it is able to enhance sexual interest, has become popular in erectile dysfunction, erectile dysfunction. Cordyceps is often used in infertility clinics, as many of the evidence has shown that it has an estrogen-enhancing effect, thus having a beneficial effect on fertility.


An additional role in the treatment of diabetes 

Cordyceps, which can be used as a suppository, can trigger the release of insulin, improving the utilization of nutrients, increasing the breakdown of glucose in the liver, increasing the insulin sensitivity of the cells, and reducing the desire for alcohol after human studies. According to Jian-You Guo et al. (University of Beijing), it may have a potential effect on depressed diabetics. It is assumed that diabetes has a 20% higher chance of suffering from depression because depression can lead to a weakening of metabolism, thus contributing to the development of diabetes. (Source: https://medicinalmushroominfo.com/can-cordyceps-help-depressed-diabetics)

Immune System Strengthening - Supportive Application For Medication For Infectious And Cancer Diseases

Numerous natural methods are available for immune enhancement. The Cordyceps fungus is a good choice because it contains a large number of different immunosuppressive ingredients. Sterols can lower blood cholesterol levels, improve immune cell activity, and thus support the immune system. Good immunosuppressive, antiviral, antioxidant polysaccharides are capable of activating macrophages, thus improving the natural immune response and binding the free radicals that are produced. 

Nucleoside analogues in Cordyceps, cordycepin (nucleoside modification) and 3-deoxyadenosine can also influence RNA / DNA synthesis. Viral (eg HIV virus) diseases are also treated in a similar manner. Nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors inhibit the active reverse transcriptase enzymes of viruses that produce DNA copies that are capable of influencing the human body from its own RNA inheritance. Nucleoside analogues of the medicinal mushroom can thus prevent the proliferation and spread of viruses and abnormal cells..

It is effective in the prevention of cancer diseases and as an adjunct to drug therapy in the development of tumors. Cordyceps also has a promising effect on the fight against tumors, because the (active) substance of cordycepin enhances the destruction of tumor cells and supports the body's defenses. They can increase the effectiveness of natural killer cells, inhibit the growth of viruses, or contribute to the destruction of infected and cancerous cells. 

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps

Ng TB et al. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2005 57(12), p.1509-1519.

Abstract: The chemical constituents of prized traditional medicinal materials as Cordyceps species (C. sinensis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa and C. ophioglossoides) include cordycepin (3'-de-oxyadenosine) and its derivatives, ergosterol, polysaccharides, a glycoprotein and peptides containing alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. They include anti-tumour, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, anti-ageing, neuroprotective and renoprotective effects. Polysaccharide accounts for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic, steroidogenic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cordycepin contributes to the anti-tumour, insecticidal and antibacterial activity. Ergosterol exhibits anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activity.

2. Mechanism of immune activation of Cordyceps

Jordan JL et al. Immune activation by a sterile aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis: mechanism of action. Immunopharm. Immunotox. 2008 30(1), p.53-70.

Abstract: The results showed that Cordíceps sinensis activates murine macrophages to produce a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IFN-gamma synergizes with C. sinensis to amplify this response. Bacterial endotoxin contamination was ruled out as a potential artefact. The evidence presented supports a hypothesis that C. sinensis activates macrophages by engaging Toll-like receptors and inducing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways characteristic of inflammatory stimuli.

3. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system

Koh JH et al. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2002 66(2) p.407-411.

Abstract: The effects of orally administered Cordyceps sinensis on the activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system were studiede. The general composition was 83.9% carbohydrate, 11.8% protein, 1.9% lipid and 2.4% ash, and the carbohydrates were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, galactose and arabinose (molar ratio of 1.0:0.8:0.5:0.1). The extract stimulated the activation of macrophages and IL-6 production. The bone marrow cells had significantly proliferated. The results indicate that an oral administration may modulate IL-6 production by the activation of macrophages, and also enhance the secretion of hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF and IL-6 from Peyer's patch cells. Since such cytokines as GM-CSF and IL-6 from Peyer's patch cells act on the systemic immune system, it can be assumed that orally administered medical mushrooms modulated not only the local but also systemic immune system.

4. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides, enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis

Kuo MC et al. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 2007 75(4) p.769-775.

Abstract: The immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides prepared from Cordyceps sinensis was investigated in human peripheral blood. Results demonstrated that Fr. A (exo-polysaccharides) induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 dose-dependently. Fr. A could significantly augment surface expression of CD11b in monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Functional assay revealed that Fr. A (0.05 mg/ml) also elevated phagocytosis in monocytes and PMN. On the other hand, Fr. B (intracellular polysaccharides) only moderately induced TNF-alpha release, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis at the same concentrations.

5. Macrophage biospecific extraction for hypothesis of immunological active components

Yu L et al. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2007 28(44) p.439-443.

Abstract: Macrophage biospecific extraction for screening potential immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis was developed. Two components, which could interact with macrophage were found, guanosine and adenosine. Results showed that adenosine and guanosine could attenuate NO (p<0.01) but augment interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) (p<0.05) release of macrophage. Guanosine (0.10 micromol/ml) also increased alpha-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) release of macrophage.

2. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi)

General

The Ganoderma Medicinal Mushroom in Rome is the food of the gods, the gift of Osiris in Egypt, the Lifexir in China, the fungus of immortality in Korea. It is called the fungus of immortality in China because of its health-promoting, disease-promoting and healing effect. It contains high levels of polysaccharides, glycoproteins, therefore it is effective in strengthening the immune system, binding the resulting "free radicals", contributing to the body's natural detoxification processes, and overcoming fatigue.

Strengthening, robotic, health preserving effects 

The antihypertensive effect of low blood pressure (ACE inhibitor) is due to the triterpenes of the fungus. It may also affect cholesterol synthesis because its naturally occurring sterols inhibit cholesterol synthesis, thereby reducing blood triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels. (Source: https://medicinalmushroominfo.com/reishi-medicinal-mushroom-is-a-potent-diabetes-treatment-comparable-to-pharmaceutical-drugs-chinese-study).

Anti-inflammatory drugs can inhibit and reduce the damaging effect of gastric juice. Ganoderma shows high tyrosinase inhibition, which is why it can be found among the ingredients of skin care products that make skin bleach and pigment stain remover. 


An additional role in the treatment of diabetes 

The proteoglycans may reduce fasting blood glucose levels, and glucose homeostasis can improve without side effects. The use of Ganoderma can improve glucose tolerance, increase the insulin sensitivity of cells, and help prevent the development of kidney failure associated with diabetes. 

Immune System Strengthening - Supportive Application For Medication For Infectious And Cancer Diseases

The Ganoderma polysaccharide and triterpene substances are good immunomodulators, may enhance the effectiveness of cellular immune responses, the function of macrophages, lymphocytes, T cells, monocytes, neutrophils, thereby protecting the body from avoiding various diseases or medication of existing ones.

Anti-inflammatory, antiviral, good antioxidant. It has an effect on the release of histamine, thus slowing down / alleviating developing allergic reactions.

Ganoderma is also traditionally used in the treatment of cancer diseases, because triterpenes exhibit high cytotoxic activity in a number of tumor cell lines, inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis. It contains anti-tumor cells, that is, immunomodulating agents, which, by supporting the immune system, normalizes the overall functioning of the body and can help to strengthen the immune system as a complementary therapy for cancerous diseases. It has been shown to be particularly effective in hormone-independent prostate and breast tumors (inhibiting DNA replication of tumor cells). In pulmonary cancer, the improvement was due to the effects of Ganoderma polysaccharides (activation of NK, natural killer cells and increase of cytokines).

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Ganoderma mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB

Kuo MC et al. Ganoderma lucidummycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016 16(2), p217-222.

Abstract: The Ganoderma stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-6 production after 8h treatment in human whole blood. IFN-gamma release from human whole blood was also enhanced after 3 day-culture with Ganoderma. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the Ganoderma activated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB DNA binding activity in RAW264.7 cells. The results provide supporting evidences for the immunomodulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

2. Biomarker responses in a controlled human double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study study

Wachtel-Galor S et al. Ganoderma lucidum("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. Br. J. Nutr. 2004 91(2), p.263-269.

Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum lowers the risk of cancer and heart disease and boosts the immune system. The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study investigated the effects of 4 weeks Lingzhi supplementation on a range of biomarkers for antioxidant status, CHD risk, DNA damage, immune status, and inflammation, as well as markers of liver and renal toxicity. It was performed as a follow-up to a study that showed that antioxidant power in plasma increased after Lingzhi ingestion, and that 10 d supplementation was associated with a trend towards an improved CHD biomarker profile. No significant change in any of the variables was found, although a slight trend toward lower lipids was again seen, and antioxidant capacity in urine increased. The results showed no evidence of liver, renal or DNA toxicity with Lingzhi intake, and this is reassuring. The study of the effects in healthy, well-nourished subjects provides useful, new scientific data that will support controlled intervention trials using at-risk subjects in order to assess the therapeutic effect of Lingzhi in the promotion of healthy ageing.

3. Ganoderma inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils

Hsu MJ et al. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma luciduminhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J. Leukoc. Biol.2002 72(1) p.207-216.

Abstract:The polysaccharide component with a branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan moiety has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor effects. Ganoderma lucidum is able to inhibit spontaneous and Fas-induced neutrophil apoptosis, and this effect is enhanced by the presence of zVAD (a caspase inhibitor) and GM-CSF. The antiapoptotic effect is diminished by the presence of wortmannin and LY294002 (two PI-3K inhibitors), but is not altered by PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor). Western blotting indicates the stimulating effect on Akt phosphorylation and its inhibition of procaspase 3 degradation, which occurs in neutrophils undergoing spontaneous apoptosis or triggered death by Fas. Taken together, elicitation of antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils primarily relies on activation of Akt-regulated signaling pathways.

4. Immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma polysaccharides

Chen HS et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi)polysaccharides. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2004 12(21) p.5595-5601.

Abstract:A fraction (F3) has been shown to activate the expression of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, G-CSF, and M-CSF, and from this three subfractions have been prepared where F3G1 activates IL-1, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and G-CSF, F3G2 activates all the cytokines as F3 does, and F3G3 activates only IL-1 and TNF-alpha. The mode of action on macrophages has been proposed where F3 binds to TLR4 receptor and activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 to induce IL-1 expression.

5. The anti-tumor effect is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes

Wang SY et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int. J. Cancer1997 70(6) p.699-705.

Abstract:Polysaccharides (PS) from of Ganoderma were isolated and used to potentiate cytokine production by human monocytes-macrophages and T lymphocytes. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, and IL-6 in macrophage cultures were 5.1-, 9.8- and 29-fold higher, respectively, than those of untreated controls. Release of interferon (IFN)- gamma from T lymphocytes was greatly promoted. The cytokine-containing mononuclear cell-conditioned media were found to suppress the proliferation and clonogenicity of both the HL-60 and the U937 leukemic cell lines. DNA labeling and gel electrophoresis showed markedly induced leukemic-cell apoptosis. Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the apoptotic population both in the HL-60 and in the U937 cells. 45% of the treated leukemic cells were triggered to differentiate into mature monocytic cells expressing CD14 and CD68 surface antigens. It was suggestive that the anti-tumor activity was derived from the elevated levels of cytokines. Antibody-neutralization studies further revealed that the anti-tumor cytokines were mainly of TNF- alpha and IFN- gamma, acted synergistically on the inhibition of leukemic-cell growth.

6. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma polysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions

Gao Y et al. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma lucidumpolysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat. Life Sci. 2002 72(6) p.731-745.

Abstract:Polysaccharide fractions isolated from Ganoderma lucidum prevented indomethacin- and acetic acid-induced gastric mucosal lesions in the rat. The effects on the cellular proliferation, ODC and c-Myc protein expression and mucus synthesis in the gastric cell culture were examined. Ganoderma lucidum by intragastric input caused ulcer-healing effect; this was accompanied with a significant suppression of TNF-alpha gene expression, but with an increased ODC activity. In RGM-1 cells, Ganoderma significantly enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation and ODC activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Ganoderma increased mucus synthesis, as indicated by the increased D-[6-3H]glucosamine incorporation in RGM-1 cells and increased the c-Myc protein expression. Results indicated that Ganoderma produced a mucosal healing effect, perhaps due partly to the suppression of TNF-alpha and induction of c-myc and ODC gene.

3. Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) 

General

It has been used in China and Japan for a long time because of its effective immune boost, blood pressure and blood sugar lowering effect. It has a high nutritional value and contains many essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It has been shown to be effective against bacteria, viruses and fungi. It can help elderly people, patients, infants and young people against stress and fatigue. 


Strengthening, robotic effects 

Lentinula fungus is an important source of potassium and zinc, approx. 14% is an amino acid (40% of which is an essential amino acid). Carbohydrate content is 66-65%, nucleic acid content is significant, approx. 7%, fat content approx. 4% high fiber content. It also contains vitamins B1, B2 and provitamin D2 (ergosterol). 

Its most important materials are high molecular weight polysaccharides, lentinan, lentinoin, 1,3-beta-glucan, emitanin-M-A, -B and -C, and an alkylated purine derivative, which is capable of controlling cholesterol.

Health Care Effects 

It positively influences the HDL: LDL type cholesterol ratio, reduces the possibility of the formation of "plaques" on the walls of the blood vessels, thus preserving the elasticity of the vascular walls and stimulates digestion, improves the survival of "useful" intestinal bacteria in the intestinal flora. 

The Lentinula in controlling the level of fat in the blood is also known because the component of erythadenin promotes the conversion of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Lentinula has a weak anticoagulant effect and can help regenerate the body and synthesize connective tissue collagen fibers. It is also recommended for chronic vascular diseases as part of complementary therapy. 

An additional role in the treatment of diabetes 

Lentinan may increase cellular insulin production, slowing down the onset of diabetes but affecting pancreatic function. Without side effects, it relieves the symptoms of insulin deficiency and may reduce the risk of developing diabetic complications. 

Immune System Strengthening - Supportive Application For Medication For Infectious And Cancer Diseases

Lentinula's polysaccharides have been shown to have a therapeutic effect on some tumors (eg sarcomas, thick and rectal tumors), probably due to their ability to bind free radicals. 

Active acetose alpha-glucan and beta-glucan in the AHCC (active hexose correlated compound) and the polysaccharide KS-2 increase cytokine production in the body. Ultimately, the cells enhance the release of interleukins, interferons and tumor necrosis factors, playing an important role in the body's immune response to infections, tissue inflammations, and tumor lesions - a well-known immune boosting effect. 

Lentinula fungus can alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy, especially in the treatment of colon cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer and pancreatic cancer. According to the University of Arkansas, Lentinula may be effective in the treatment of breast cancer and myeloma.

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Lentinulaconsumption resulted in increased interleukin (4, 10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and increased proliferation of natural killer T (NK-T) cells

Dai X et al. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2015 34(6), p.478-487.

Abstract: 25 healthy males and females, aged 21-41 years, participated in a 4-week parallel group study, consuming either 5 or 10 g of dried Lentinula edodes (shiitake) mushrooms daily. Eating Lentinula for 4 weeks resulted in increased proliferation of γδ-T cell (60% more, p < 0.0001) and natural killer T (NK-T) (2-fold more, p < 0.0001) cells. Both cell types also demonstrated a greater ability to express activation receptors, suggesting that consuming mushrooms improved cell effector function. The increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) implied improved gut immunity. The reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum suggested lower inflammation. The pattern of cytokines secreted before and after mushroom consumption was significantly different; consumption resulted in increased interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1α levels, a decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/chemokine C-C ligand 3 (MIP-1α/CCL3) level, and no change to IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1β, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels. Regular Lentinula consumption resulted in improved immunity, as seen by improved cell proliferation and activation and increased sIgA production. The changes observed in cytokine and serum CRP levels suggest that these improvements occurred under conditions that were less inflammatory than those that existed before consumption.

2. Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinanas an immunomodulator

Chihara G et al. Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinanas an immunomodulator: an overview. Cancer Detect Prev. Suppl. 1987 (1), p423-443.

Abstract: The antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities, mode of action, and clinical application of lentinan, a strictly purified beta-1,6:beta-1,3-glucan, were reviewed. Lentinan exerts a prominent antitumor effect and prevents chemical and viral oncogenesis. The antitumor action of lentinan is host-mediated. Compared to other well-known immunostimulants, such as bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lentinan appears to represent an unique class of immunopotentiator, a T cell-oriented adjuvant. Lentinan triggers the increased production of various kinds of bioactive serum factors associated with immunity and inflammation, such as IL-1, CSF, IL-3, vascular dilation inducer, and acute-phase protein inducer, by the direct impact of macrophages or indirectly via lentinan-stimulated T cells, which results in the induction of many immunobiological changes in the host. Augmented IL-1 production amplifies the maturation of immature effector cells to mature cells capable of responding to lymphokines such as IL-2 and T cell-replacing factors. Because of this mode of action, intact T cell compartments for antitumor activity of lentinan are required. Lentinan has little toxic side effects. Excellent results were obtained in a 4 year follow-up of the randomized control study of lentinan in phase III on patients with advanced and recurrent stomach and colorectal cancer.

3. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines

Fang N et al. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by an ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms.J. Altern. Complement Med. 2006 12(2) p.125-132.

Abstract:Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms have been reported to have cancer-preventing properties. Concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects were observed. 50 mg/L concentration of the fraction induced apoptosis in 50% of the population of four human tumor cell lines and the fraction-induced apoptosis may have been mediated through the pro-apoptotic bax protein which was up-regulated. The fraction induced cell cycle arrest by significant decrease of S phase, which was associated with the induction of cdk inhibitors p21 and the suppression of cdk4 and cyclin D1 activity. Compared to malignant tumor cells, nonmalignant cells were less sensitive to the fraction for the suppression of cell growth and regulation of bax, p21, cyclin D1, and cdk4 expression. A 51% antiproliferative effect occurred at the highest concentration of the fraction (800 mg/L). Data suggest that inhibition of growth in tumor cells by "mycochemicals" in shiitake mushrooms may result from induction of apoptosis.

4. Agaricus blazei (murill) 

General

Agaricus is used in complementary therapies for diabetics in Chinese and Japanese medicine. Agaricus contains high concentrations of polysaccharides and is therefore one of the most effective medicinal mushrooms. Agaricus can improve insulin resistance, reduce body weight, body fat, serum glucose and cholesterol. 

Strengthening, robotic effects 

It contains more minerals (magnesium, potassium) vitamins (vitamins B, E and D), essential amino acids, polysaccharides, beta-glucans, various phospholipids, and plant steroids. 

It has an anti-inflammatory effect, strengthening the immune system, stimulating the body against infectious diseases, contributing to the body's natural detoxification processes. 

It promotes the proliferation of natural killer cells, has good antioxidant activity (due to its superoxide dismutase content), therefore it can reduce the chance of developing cancerous diseases and is effective in the treatment of existing tumors.

Health Care Effects 

In Agaricus, a higher quantity of lentin is a moderator of biological reactions. Agaricus increases the immune system's defense ability, may have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, may help lower blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, promote liver function, reduce insulin resistance in the cells. 

Agaricus can be classified as an immune-modulating fungus, able to inhibit the release of histamine, the development of an allergic reaction. It contains natural steroids as natural anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit histamine release, slowing down allergic reactions.

An additional role in the treatment of diabetes 

It can also be used by diabetics as it can reduce insulin resistance and increase the insulin sensitivity of the cells. It is assumed that a decrease in the insulin sensitivity of the cells may predispose to the development of cancerous diseases and may reduce the chances of survival (eg breast, liver, prostate, pancreas, colorectal cancer) in already ill patients. 


Immune System Strengthening - Supportive Application For Medication For Infectious And Cancer Diseases

Agaricus beta-glucans normalize the functioning of the immune system, its natural ergosterol content is of great importance in the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficient conditions. Agaricus has a beneficial effect on healing processes in viral and bacterial infections. 

Clinical studies with Agaricus polysaccharides have shown improvements in a number of cancers such as lung, cervix, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancer.Effect: immunomodulator; can cause cell death in tumor cells; stimulates T lymphocytes and macrophages. Under experimental conditions, it inhibited the formation of metastases (metastases) and prevented the growth of existing metastases. 

The severity of the adverse health effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been reduced, which can significantly improve patients' quality of life. 

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Effect of Agaricus in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

Therkelsen SP et al. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazeiMurill Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study. PLOS One2016 March.

Abstract:Agaricus blazei has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of Agaricus blazei or placebo for the 21 days' experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24) symptoms improved from baseline to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.88 (4.92-6.83), 4.71 (3.90-5.52) (p = 0.002) and 4.50 (3.70-5.30) (p = 0.001). Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD) for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59), 14.1 (4.50) (p = 0.001) and 15.1 (4.09) (p = 0.023). The scores in the placebo group (n = 26) were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study.

2. Natural killer cell activity by consumption of Agaricus in gynecologicalcancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

Ahn WS et al. Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract,Agaricus blazeiMurill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int. J. Gynecological Cancer2004 August

Abstract:Agaricus blazei has been reported to possess antimutagenic and antitumor effects. 100 cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer patients were treated either with carboplatin plus VP16 (etoposide) or with carboplatin plus taxol every 3 weeks for at least three cycles with or without oral consumption of Agaricus blazei. Natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in treated group (p<0.002) as compared with nontreated placebo group. Chemotherapyassociated side effects such as appetite, alopecia, emotional stability, and general weakness were all improved by ABMK treatment. Data suggests that Agaricus blazei treatment might be beneficial for gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

3. Suppressing effects of beta-glucan on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis

Kobayashi H et al. Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted fromAgaricus blazeiMurill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. J. of Cancer Res. And Clin. Oncology. 2005 131(8) p-527-538.

Abstract:It was examined whether beta-(1-6)-D-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei is a potential anticancer agent. Beta-glucan had cytotoxic effect against human ovarian cancer HRA cells, but not against murine Lewis lung cancer 3LL cells, in vitro. Beta-glucan promotes p38 MAPK activity for suppressing HRA cell proliferation and amplifying the apoptosis cascade. Beta-glucan stimulates translocation of the proapoptotic protein, Bax, from the cytosol to mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and subsequent caspase-9 activation. Treatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, suppresses beta-glucan-induced effects, indicating that activation of p38 MAPK is involved in the suppression of cell proliferation and mitochondrial activation-mediated cell death pathway. Oral supplementation with beta-glucan reduces pulmonary metastasis of 3LL cells and peritoneal disseminated metastasis of HRA cells and inhibits the growth of these metastatic tumors in lung or peritoneal cavity, in part, by suppressing uPA expression. Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis. The beta-glucan-dependent signaling pathways are critical for our understanding of anticancer events and development of cancer therapeutic agents.

5. Grifola frondosa (Maitake) 

General

Chinese medicine has been part of hundreds of years. The Japanese name of Grifola is madaake, ie "dancing mushroom". It is native to the north-eastern mountains of Japan and to North America, and today it is mostly in the form of an extract. 

It is suitable for the maintenance of general health, enhances liver and bile function, thus it has a positive effect on the utilization of fats and sugars, in the daily detoxification processes of the body, in the mitigation of the effect of inflammations.

Strengthening, robotic, health preserving effects 

It contains high levels of minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium) and B2 and D vitamins, including amino acids and fibers. 

Studies have shown that Grifola can inhibit tumor cell growth as well as a good immune boost. Thanks to Grifola's ergosterol and proteoglycan content, it contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis (osteoporosis). 

An additional role in the treatment of diabetesThe additional role in the treatment of diabetes 

The (active) substances of Grifola have a beneficial effect on the blood sugar level of the body. Alpha- and beta-glucans increase the sensitivity of insulin receptors and alleviate insulin resistance in peripheral target tissues. It is used in complementary therapy for diabetics in Chinese and Japanese medicine.

Immune System Strengthening - Supportive Application For Medication For Infectious And Cancer Diseases 

The Grifola mushroom also has a unique composition, which is typical only for this type of mushroom. It contains high levels of beta-glucan, which is an effective immune enhancer. It activates macrophage cells, natural killer cells and T cells.

Its active substance, combined with vitamin C, can reduce the harmful side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on the body. 

Grifola also contains polysaccharide and proteoglycan fractions (D- and MD-4 fractions) that activate the natural killer cells (NK cells) of the immune system and prevent rapid growth of tumor cells. Effect: Immune Enhancer; direct destruction of tumor cells; increasing the number of white blood cells (greater tolerance to chemotherapy) and inhibiting the formation of metastases (metastases) by reducing the expression of tumor markers.

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract in breast cancer patients: immunological effects

Deng G. et al. A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa(Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects. J. of Cancer Res. And clin. Oncology. 2009 135(9) p.1215-1221.

Abstract:Polysaccharide extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake extract) showed immunomodulatory effects in preclinical studies and therefore the potential for clinical use. In a phase I/II dose escalation trial, 34 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free of disease after initial treatment, were enrolled sequentially in five cohorts. Maitake was taken orally at 0.1-5 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks. No dose-limiting toxicity was encountered. There was a statistically significant association between Maitake and immunologic function (p < 0.0005). Increasing doses of Maitake increased some immunologic parameters and depressed others; the dose-response curves for many endpoints were non-monotonic with intermediate doses having either immune enhancing or immune suppressant effects compared with both high and low doses. Oral administration was associated with both immunologically stimulatory and inhibitory measurable effects in peripheral blood. Cancer patients should be made aware of the fact that botanical agents produce more complex effects than assumed, and may depress as well as enhance immune function.

2. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitory and Antioxidant Compounds from Grifola

Zhang Y et al. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitory and Antioxidant Compounds from the Mycelia of the Edible MushroomGrifolafrondosa. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 50(26) p.7581-7585.

3. Effects of D-Fraction on the carcinoma angiogenesis

Matsui K et al. Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the carcinoma angiogenesis. Cancer Letters. 2001 172(2) p.193-198.

Abstract:D-Fraction of Grifola frondosa, activates immune competent cells, and indicates anti-tumor activities. The D-Fraction was observed to induce angiogenesis and to enhance the proliferation capability and migration capability of human vascular endothelial cell. D-Fraction increased plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration significantly. VEGF and TNF-α production by the activated peritoneal macrophages were enhanced. The results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of the D-Fraction is not only associated with the activation of the immuno-competent cells but also possibly related to the carcinoma angiogenesis induction.

4. A polysaccharide enhances the anti-tumor activity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-based immunotherapy against murine colon cancer

Masuda Y et al. A polysaccharide extracted fromGrifola frondosaenhances the anti-tumor activity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-based immunotherapy against murine colon cancer. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2010 59(10) p.4531-1541.

Abstract:The heteropolysaccharide maitake Z-fraction (MZF) significantly inhibited tumor growth by inducing cell-mediated immunity. MZF upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and MHC II on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and significantly increased interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by DCs in a dose-dependent manner. MZF-treated DCs significantly stimulated both allogeneic and antigen-specific syngenic T cell responses and enhanced antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by syngenic CD4+ T cells; however, MZF-treated DCs did not affect IL-4 production. Enhancement of IFN-γ production in CD4+ T cells, which was induced by MZF-treated DCs, was completely inhibited by the addition of an anti-IL-12 antibody. The results indicate that MZF induced DC maturation and antigen-specific Th1 response by enhancing DC-produced IL-12. MZF could be a potential effective adjuvant to enhance immunotherapy using DC-based vaccination.

5. Antitumor effect of β-glucan by activating Dectin-1/Syk/NF-κB signaling in resident peritoneal macrophages

Fang J et al. Structure of a β-glucan fromGrifola frondosaand its antitumor effect by activating Dectin-1/Syk/NF-κB signaling. Glycoconjug. J. 2012 29(5-6) p.365-377.

Abstract:A β-glucan, GFPBW1, with a molecular mass of 300 kDa, structure was determined to be a β-D-(1-3)-linked glucan backbone with a single β-D-(1-6)-linked glucopyranosyl residue branched at C-6 on every third residue. It induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and the activation of Syk and NF-κB signaling in resident peritoneal macrophages, which could be significantly inhibited by the blocking reagent laminarin. A competitive phagocytosis assay with FITC-zymosan indicated that GFPBW1 could bind to DC-associated C-type lectin 1 (Dectin-1). The TNF-α secretion and activation of Syk/NF-κB signaling triggered by GFPBW1 were enhanced in RAW264.7 cells overexpressing wild but not mutant (Δ38 and Y15S) Dectin-1. GFPBW1 potentiated the Concanavalin A-induced proliferative response of splenocytes and inhibited Sarcoma-180 growth allografted but not in immunodeficient BALB/c. The results suggested that the antitumor activity of GFPBW1 was partially associated with the activation of macrophages via the Dectin-1/Syk/NF-κB signaling pathway. This molecule could be a promising biological response modifier with clear application for antitumor therapies.

6. Moringa oleifera 

General

Moringa has played an important role in Western African and Asian traditional folk medicine. According to ancient Sanskrit writings, all parts of the plant were used to cure diseases in Ayurvedic healing. 

The glucosinolate content of the flower and the root is bactericidal and has proven effective in the treatment of cholera. Its flower is used as a bile and diuretic, its leaf against scurvy and respiratory diseases, is used for wound healing of leaf pulp, the leaf extract is used for disinfection and malaria. 

The analgesic effect of the leaf extract, its antiviral effect and the effect of root extract on arthritis have been demonstrated. Source: www.wiley-vch.de

Moringa is a rich source of nutrients and its valuable materials are mainly found in leaves. Moringa contains significant amounts of antioxidants and amino acids. Moringa's leaves are high in zeatin (a plant growth hormone). 

The leaf contains high levels of vitamin C, beta-carotene and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe). The so-called. ORAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a product. According to the USDA, the recommended daily ORAC value is 3000-5000 units. Compared to this, the Moringa ORAC value is 157600 µmol TE (units) / 100 grams, ie approx. ORAC value of 2 grams of leaf is approx. 3000 units. 

Strengthening, robotic effects 

Moringa is recommended for anemia, cardiac arrhythmia, edema, joint problems, inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, gastric or intestinal ulcer, diarrhea, intestinal cramps, heart problems, thyroid problems, bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic inflammation . Seeds contain 19-40% oil, palmitin, stearin, eruca / docosa and oil.

Health effects - strengthening the immune system 

Moringa can be effective in malnutrition, anemia, headache, fluctuating blood pressure, inflammation and skin problems, diarrhea and fever. Moringa is also used to strengthen sexual functions, spontaneous natural contraception, strengthen the immune system, and boost milk production in breastfeeding mothers.

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:

1. Moringa greatly induced apoptosis and inhibited tumor cell growth in human lung cancer cells

Jung IL et al. Soluble Extract from Moringa oleiferaLeaves with a New Anticancer Activity. PLOS One2014 April

Abstract:Various therapeutic effects such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated. Moringa extract greatly induced apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the level of internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lung cancer cells as well as other several types of cancer cells, suggesting that the treatment of cancer cells significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and invasion. 90% of the genes tested were unexpectedly downregulated more than 2-fold, while just below 1% of the genes were upregulated more than 2-fold in extract-treated cells, when compared with nontreated cells. Since severe dose-dependent rRNA degradation was observed, the abnormal downregulation of numerous genes was considered to be attributable to abnormal RNA formation caused by treatment with extracts. Additionally, the extract showed greater cytotoxicity for tumor cells than for normal cells, strongly suggesting that it could potentially be an ideal anticancer therapeutic candidate specific to cancer cells. The results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the extract in the treatment of various types of cancers.

2. Moringa with multiple medicinal uses

Anwar F et al. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Res. 2007 21(1) p.17-25.

Abstract:Different parts of the plant contain a profile of important minerals and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acis and kaempferol. Various part sas leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods as cardiac- and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antieplileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

3. Therapeutic potential of Moringain chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia

Mbikay M et al. Therapeutic potential of Moringa oleiferaleaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia: a review. Front. Pharmacol. 2012 March

Abstract:Dietary consumption of Moringa oleiferais therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Scientific data show the corrective potential in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Moringa formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined.

4. Possible Role of Moringa's unique combination of isothiocyanate and glucosinolatesin Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Bose CK et al. Possible Role of Moringa oleiferaLam. Root in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Med. Gen. Med. 2007 9(1) p.26.

Abstract:In studies of the anticancer potential of plants, extracts of Moringa plants could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds. The only herb that has been shown to play a role in the treatment of female reproductive disorders is Moringa, whose effectiveness is derived from a combination of antitumor and hormonal properties. Moringa contains an unique combination of isothiocyanate and glucosinolates. The effectiveness in treating ovarian cancer became evident after recent studies demonstrating that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Isothiocyanates have antitumor activity in cancers of the lung, breast, skin, esophagus, and pancreas, but we did not know that it can also induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell.

5. Antiasthmatic activity ofMoringa:A clinical study

Agrawal B et al. Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleiferaLam: A clinical study. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2008 40(1) p.28-31.

Abstract:20 patients of either 6 with mild-to-moderate asthma were given dried Moringa in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. Haematological parameters were not changed by treatment with Moringa. The majority of pateints showed significant increase in haemoglobin values and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. The treatment produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and peak expiratory flow rate values in asthmatic patients. None of the patients showed any adverse effects. Results suggest the usefulness of Moringa in patients of bronchial asthma.